Central Venous Pressure and Clinical Outcomes During Left-Sided Mechanical Support for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock

EH Whitehead, KL Thayer, D Burkhoff, N Uriel, EM Ohman, W O'Neill and NK Kapur
Front Cardiovasc Med 2020;7:155

Background: Right ventricular failure (RVF) is associated with increased mortality among patients receiving left ventricular mechanical circulatory support (LV-MCS) for cardiogenic shock and requires prompt recognition and management. Increased central venous pressure (CVP) is an indicator of potential RVF.

Objectives: We studied whether elevated CVP during LV-MCS for acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock is associated with higher mortality.

Methods: Between January 2014 and June 2019, we analyzed hemodynamic parameters during Impella LV-MCS from 28 centers in the United States participating in the global, prospective catheter-based ventricular assist device (cVAD) study. A total of 132 patients with a documented CVP measurement while on Impella left-sided support for cardiogenic shock were identified.

Results: CVP was significantly higher among patients who died in the hospital (14.0 vs. 11.7 mmHg, p = 0.014), and a CVP >12 identified patients at significantly higher risk for in-hospital mortality (65 vs. 45%, p = 0.02). CVP remained significantly associated with in-hospital mortality even after adjustment in a multivariable model (adjusted OR 1.10 [95% CI 1.02-1.19] per 1 mmHg increase). LV-MCS suction events were non-significantly more frequent among patients with high vs. low CVP (62.11 vs. 7.14 events, p = 0.067).

Conclusion: CVP is a single, readily accessible hemodynamic parameter which predicts a higher rate of short-term mortality and may identify subclinical RVF in patients receiving LV-MCS for cardiogenic shock.

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