Influence of Timing and Predicted Risk on Mortality in Impella-Treated Infarct-Related Cardiogenic Shock Patients

A Schäfer, N Werner, D Burkhoff, J-T Sieweke, A Zietzer, M Masyuk, NL Junker Udesen, R Westenfeld and JE Møller
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 2020;7

Background: In-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) remains high. The only adequately powered randomized trial showed no benefit of routine use of the intra-aortic balloon pump in AMI-CS. We compared individually predicted mortality using CardShock- and IABP-Shock II-scores in AMI-CS patients treated with an Impella microaxial pump, who met the IABP-Shock II-trials inclusion/exclusion criteria, to observed mortality on circulatory support in order to determine whether standardized use of an Impella microaxial flow-pump in AMI-CS is associated with lower than predicted mortality rates and whether timing of implantation or selecting patients based on predicted risk is meaningful.

Methods and Results: We analyzed data from 166 consecutive Impella-treated AMI-CS patients meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the IABP-Shock II-trial (age 64 ± 11 years). Thirty-nine percentage of 64 patients had been resuscitated before Impella implantation. Overall 30-day mortality was 42%. Mortality was higher in resuscitated patients (50 vs. 36%, p = 0.0452) and when Impella was implanted post-PCI (Impella-pre-PCI: 28%, Impella-post-PCI: 51%, p = 0.0039). While in both score systems there was no significant difference between predicted and observed overall 30-day mortality, predicted mortality was significantly higher than observed mortality on Impella support only for individuals with highest predicted risk based on CardShock score (predicted 77 vs. observed 51%, p = 0.025).

Conclusions: Our retrospective analysis suggests that the use of the Impella microaxial pump may be effective in selected cases of high risk patients with AMI-CS.

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