Background: Risk stratifying patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) is a major unmet need. The recently proposed Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) stages as an approach to identify patients at risk for in-hospital mortality remains under investigation. We studied the utility of the SCAI stages and further explored the impact of hemodynamic congestion on clinical outcomes.
Methods: The CS Working Group registry includes patients with CS from 8 medical centers enrolled between 2016 and 2019. Patients were classified by the maximum SCAI stage (B-E) reached during their hospital stay according to drug and device utilization. In-hospital mortality was evaluated for association with SCAI stages and hemodynamic congestion.
Results: Of the 1414 patients with CS, the majority were due to decompensated heart failure (50%) or myocardial infarction (MI; 35%). In-hospital mortality was 31% for the total cohort, but higher among patients with MI (41% versus 26%, MI versus heart failure, P<0.0001). Risk for in-hospital mortality was associated with increasing SCAI stage (odds ratio [95% CI], 3.25 [2.63-4.02]) in both MI and heart failure cohorts. Hemodynamic data was available in 1116 (79%) patients. Elevated biventricular filling pressures were common among patients with CS, and right atrial pressure was associated with increased mortality and higher SCAI Stage.
Conclusions: Our findings support an association between the proposed SCAI staging system and in-hospital mortality among patient with heart failure and MI. We further identify that venous congestion is common and identifies patients with CS at high risk for in-hospital mortality. These findings provide may inform future management protocols and clinical studies.